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How Does Cancer Immunotherapy Work?

Because Of Its Normal Function, The Immune System Is Able To Identify And Eliminate Cancer-Causing Agents Such As Viruses And Bacteria. Tumors, For Instance, May Contain Immune Cells. When The Immune System Recognises And Attacks A Tumour, It Produces Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (Tils). Tumors With Lit Tend To Do Better In Patients Than Tumours Without Lit.

While The Immune System Has The Ability To Stop Or Slow The Spread Of Cancer, Cancer Cells Have Learned To Evade Immune System Attack. Cancer Cells, For Instance, Have The Ability To:

  • Having Genetic Alterations That Obscure Them To The Immune System’s Eye.
  • The Presence Of Proteins On The Surface Of The Organism That Inhibit The Activity Of Immune Cells.
  • Modify The Immune System’s Response To Cancer Cells By Altering The Normal Cells That Surround The Tumour.
  • When It Comes To Fighting Cancer, Immunotherapy Helps The Body’s Immune System Do A Better Job.

Immunotherapy Is Used To Treat Which Types Of Cancer?

Many Types Of Cancer Can Now Be Treated With Immunotherapy Drugs That Have Been Approved By The Fda. Immunotherapy, On The Other Hand, Is Not As Widely Used As Other Treatments Like Surgery, Chemotherapy, And Radiation.

How Is Immunotherapy Given?

When And How Different Immunotherapies Are Administered Will Depend On Which One They Are. They Are As Follows:

Immunotherapy Administered Intravenously (Iv) Is Called Intravenous (Iv) Immunotherapy.

Oral Immunotherapy Comes In The Form Of Tablets Or Capsules That Are Swallowed Whole Or With Food.

Using A Cream On Your Skin For Topical Immunotherapy Can Be An Option. Early-Stage Skin Cancer Patients May Benefit From This Immunotherapy.

As The Name Implies, This Type Of Treatment Delivers Its Immune-Boosting Effects Intravenously, Into The Bladder.

Where Do You Get Immunotherapy?

A Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Or Hospital Outpatient Unit Can All Provide Immunotherapy. You Don’t Have To Stay The Night In The Hospital If You Have An Outpatient Procedure.

How Often Do You Get Immunotherapy?

The Frequency And Duration Of Immunotherapy Treatments Are Determined By:

  • Type Of Cancer You Have And Stage Of Disease
  • The Kind Of Immunotherapy You’re Getting
  • Body’s Reaction To The Therapy

You Could Be Treated Daily, Weekly, Or Monthly, Depending On Your Needs. Cyclic Immunotherapies Are Used For Some Treatments. After A Treatment Phase, There Is A Recovery Phase Called A Cycle. Immunotherapy And New Healthy Cells Can Be Produced While You’re Resting. This Gives Your Body A Chance To Recover And Respond.

How Can You Tell If Immunotherapy Is Working? 

You’ll Have Regular Checkups With Your Doctor. Physical Exams Will Be Performed By The Doctor, And You’ll Be Asked About Your Health And Well-Being. A Variety Of Medical Exams Will Be Performed On You, Including Blood Tests And Scans Of Various Kinds. Your Tumor’s Size Will Be Determined By These Tests, And Your Blood Tests Will Be Monitored For Any Changes That May Occur.

What Immunotherapy Studies Are Being Conducted Right Now?

To Improve Immunotherapy, Scientists Are Working On A Number Of Fronts, Including:

Find Ways To Overcome The Opposition. To Overcome Immunotherapy Resistance, Scientists Are Experimenting With Different Combinations Of Checkpoint Inhibitors And Immunotherapies Such As Targeted Therapy And Radiation Therapy.

Investigate Methods For Predicting Immunotherapy Response. Patients Who Receive Immunotherapy Have A Small Chance Of Responding. It’s A Major Focus Of Research To Figure Out Who Will Respond To Treatment And How Well They Respond.

Investigate The Mechanisms By Which Cancer Cells Thwart Or Suppress The Immune System’s Response To Them. New Drugs That Prevent Cancer Cells From Evading The Immune System May Be Developed If The Mechanisms By Which They Do So Can Be Better Understood.

Hemotologic Oncology

Seven Ways To Reduce Your Risk Of Cancer

It’s Possible You’ve Come Across Conflicting Information On How To Prevent Cancer. One Study’s Recommendations For Cancer Prevention Measures May Be Contradicted By Another’s Recommendations.

Cancer Prevention Research Is Constantly Evolving. However, It’s Well-Known That Your Risk Of Getting Cancer Is Influenced By Your Daily Habits.

So, If You’re Concerned About Cancer Prevention, Know That Small Alterations To Your Daily Routine Can Have A Big Impact. Here Are Some Suggestions To Help You Stay Cancer-Free.

1. Don’t Smoke Or Use Any Other Tobacco Products.

Smoking Any Kind Of Tobacco Increases Your Risk Of Getting Cancer. Many Cancers Are Aggravated Or Made Worse By Smoking. These Include Cancers Of The Cervix, Bladder, Mouth, And Throat. Tobacco Chewing Has Been Linked To Oral And Pancreatic Cancer. Lung Cancer Risk Increases With Exposure To Secondhand Smoke Even If You Do Not Use Tobacco.

Tobacco Avoidance Or Cessation Is A Critical Step In The Fight Against Cancer. If You’re Having Trouble Quitting, Talk To Your Doctor About Over-The-Counter Cessation Aids And Other Options.

2. Maintain A Healthy Weight By Following A Balanced Diet.

Eating Well And Shopping Wisely Do Not Guarantee Cancer Prevention, But They Can Reduce Your Risk Of Contracting The Disease. Take Into Account The Following Suggestions:

Consume A Wide Variety Of Fresh Fruits And Vegetables To Keep Your Body Healthy. Focus On Plant-Based Foods Like Fruits, Vegetables, And Whole Grains And Beans In Your Diet.

Obey Your Doctor’s Orders Regarding Your Weight. Choose Fewer High-Calorie Foods, Such As Refined Sugars And Animal Fats, To Lose Weight And Tone Up.

If You Choose To Consume Alcoholic Beverages, Do So Sparingly. Cancer Risk Increases With Alcohol Consumption, Including Breast, Colon, Lung, Kidney, And Liver Cancer. This Is Especially True If You Drink On A Regular Basis.

Reduce Your Consumption Of Processed Meats. The World Health Organization’s Cancer Agency, The International Agency For Research On Cancer, Found In A Study That Eating A Lot Of Processed Meat May Raise Your Risk Of Getting Some Types Of Cancer.

A Mediterranean Diet Rich In Extra Virgin Olive Oil And Mixed Nuts May Also Help Protect Against Breast Cancer In Women. Fruits And Vegetables, Whole Grains, Legumes, And Nuts Are All Staples Of The Mediterranean Diet. Healthy Fats Such As Olive Oil Instead Of Butter And Fish In Place Of Red Meat Are Staples Of The Mediterranean Diet, Which Is Popular In The U.S.

3. Stay In Shape By Eating Healthfully And Engaging In Regular Physical Activity.

Weight Loss Can Help Prevent Several Types Of Cancer, Including Breast, Prostate, Lungs, And Colon. It Can Also Help You Live Longer.

Participation In Physical Activities Is Also Taken Into Consideration. Physical Activity Alone May Lower Your Risk Of Breast And Colon Cancer, In Addition To Helping You Control Your Weight.

The Health Benefits Of Physical Activity Extend To Adults Of All Ages. It Is Recommended That Adults Engage In 150 Minutes Of Moderate Aerobic Activity Or 75 Minutes Of Vigorous Aerobic Activity Each Week To Reap The Most Health Benefits. Combining Moderate And Vigorous Exercise Is An Option As Well. Be Sure To Get In At Least 30 Minutes Of Physical Activity Each Day As A General Rule Of Thumb And Even More If You’re Able To!

4. Protect Yourself From The Sun

There Are Many Cancers That Can Be Prevented, Including Skin Cancer, Which Is One Of The Most Common And Preventable. You May Want To Consider The Following Options:

Avoid Being Out In The Sun During The Middle Of The Day. Avoid Being In The Sun Between The Hours Of 10 A.M. And 4 P.M., When The Sun Is At Its Most Intense.

Stay Cool By Finding A Shady Spot To Sit. When You’re Out And About, Try To Find As Much Shade As You Can. Wearing Sunglasses And A Wide-Brimmed Hat Can Also Protect You From The Sun’s Rays.

Protect The Areas That Aren’t Covered. Cover As Much Of Your Body As Possible With Loose-Fitting, Tight-Knit Clothing. Avoid Pastels And Bleached Cotton In Favour Of Bright Or Dark Colours, Which Reflect Uv Radiation More Effectively Than The Latter.

Make Sure You Use Plenty Of Sunscreen. Even On Overcast Days, Apply A Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen With A Minimum Spf Of 30. Reapply Sunscreen At Least Every Two Hours, And More Frequently If You’re Swimming Or Exercising In The Hot Sun.

Avoid Using Sunlamps And Tanning Beds. These Have The Same Level Of Danger As Exposure To Ultraviolet Radiation From The Sun.

5. Vaccinate Yourself.

Protection Against Certain Viral Infections Is Part Of Cancer Prevention. Consult Your Physician About Getting Vaccinated Against:

Liver Disease Caused By Hepatitis B Virus. It’s Possible That Having Hepatitis B Will Put You At Greater Risk Of Getting Liver Cancer. It Is Recommended That Certain High-Risk Adults, Such As Those Who Are Sexually Active But Not In A Mutually Monogamous Relationship, Have The Hepatitis B Vaccine. Other High-Risk Adults Include Those Who Are In A Sexually Transmitted Infection, Who Use Intravenous Drugs, And Men Who Have Sex With Other Men.

Viral Infection With The Human Papillomavirus (Hpv). Cervical And Other Genital Cancers, As Well As Squamous Cell Carcinomas Of The Head And Neck, Can All Be Caused By Hpv, A Sexually Transmitted Virus. Girls And Boys Between The Ages Of 11 And 12 Should Get The Hpv Vaccine. For Men And Women Aged 9 To 45, The Gardasil 9 Vaccine Was Recently Approved By The Us Food And Drug Administration (Fda).

6. Stay Away From High-Risk Activities.

Avoiding Risky Behaviours That Can Lead To Infections, Which In Turn Increase The Risk Of Cancer, Is Another Effective Cancer Prevention Strategy. As An Illustration:

Make Sure You’re Having Sex Safely. Whenever You Have Sex, Use A Condom And Keep Your Sexual Partners To A Minimum. Sexually Transmitted Infections, Such As Hiv Or Hpv, Are More Likely To Be Contracted The More Sexual Partners You Have In Your Life. Anal, Liver, And Lung Cancer Are All More Common In People With Hiv Or Aids. In Addition To Cervical Cancer, Hpv Has Been Linked To An Increased Risk Of Anus, Penis, Throat, And Vulva And Vaginal Cancers.

Never Exchange A Needle With Someone Else. In Addition To Hiv, Hepatitis B And C Can Increase The Risk Of Liver Cancer If Shared Needles Are Used By People Who Use Intravenous Drugs. If You Have Concerns About Recreational Drug Use Or Addiction, You Should Seek Help From A Professional.

7. See A Doctor On A Regular Basis.

The Earlier You Find Cancer, The Better Your Chances Are Of Successfully Treating It. This Is Why It’s Important To Conduct Regular Self-Examinations And Exams For Cancers Like Skin, Colon, Cervical, And Breast. To Find Out Which Cancer Screening Programme Is Right For You, Talk To Your Doctor.

Types Of Blood Cancer

Signs And Symptoms Of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Can Cause Many Different Signs And Symptoms. Most Of Them Occur In All Types Of All, But Some Are More Common In Certain Subtypes Of All .

Symptoms Caused By Low Blood Cell Levels

Most Of The Signs And Symptoms Of All Are The Result Of A Lack Of Normal Blood Cells, Which Happens When Leukemia Cells Crowd Out Normal Blood-Forming Cells In The Bone Marrow. These Deficiencies Show Up In Blood Tests , But They Can Also Cause Symptoms, Including:

  • Feeling Tired
  • Soft Spot
  • Dizziness Or Lightheadedness
  • Difficulty Breathing
  • Pale Skin
  • Infections That Do Not Go Away Or That Recur
  • Bruises (Or Small Red Or Purple Dots) On The Skin

Bleeding, Such As Frequent Or Severe Nosebleeds, Gum Bleeding, Or Heavy Menstrual Bleeding In Women

General Symptoms

All Patients Often Have Several Non-Specific Symptoms As Well, Which May Include:

  • Weightloss
  • Fever
  • Night Sweats
  • Loss Of Appetite

Of Course, These Symptoms Are Not Just Caused By All, And Are More Often Caused By A Condition Other Than Leukemia.

Swelling In The Abdomen

Leukemic Cells Can Accumulate In The Liver And Spleen, Causing These Organs To Enlarge. This May Be Noticed As Fullness Or Bloating Of The Abdomen Or Feeling Full After Eating Only A Small Amount Of Food. The Lower Ribs Usually Cover These Organs, But When They Are Enlarged The Doctor Can Feel Them.

Enlarged Lymph Nodes

All That Spreads To Lymph Nodes That Are Close To The Surface Of The Body (Such As On The Sides Of The Neck, In The Groin, Or In Areas Of The Armpits), Can Be Felt As Masses Under The Skin. Swelling Of The Lymph Nodes Inside The Chest Or Abdomen Can Also Occur, But This Can Only Be Detected By Imaging Tests Such As Ct Or Mri.

Bone Or Joint Pain

Sometimes Leukemia Cells Collect Near The Surface Of The Bones Or Within The Joints, Causing Bone Or Joint Pain.

Spread To Other Organs

Less Commonly, All Can Spread To Other Organs:

If All Spreads To The Brain And Spinal Cord, It Can Cause Headaches, Weakness, Seizures, Vomiting, Problems With Balance Or Numbness, Or Blurred Vision.

All Can Spread Within The Chest, Where It Can Cause Fluid Buildup And Trouble Breathing.

In Rare Cases, All Can Spread To The Skin, Eyes, Testicles, Ovaries, Kidneys, Or Other Organs.

Symptoms Of An Enlarged Thymus

The T-Cell Subtype Of All Most Often Affects The Thymus, Which Is A Small Organ Located In The Middle Of The Chest, Behind The Breastbone (Chest Bone), And In Front Of The Windpipe. The Enlarged Thymus Can Compress The Windpipe, Causing Coughing Or Shortness Of Breath.

The Superior Vena Cava (Svc), A Large Vein That Carries Blood From The Head And Arms Back To The Heart, Passes Close To The Thymus. If The Thymus Is Enlarged, It Can Press On The Svc Causing Blood To “Back Up” In The Veins. This Is Called The Svc Syndrome . May Cause:

Swelling Of The Face, Neck, Arms, And Upper Chest (Sometimes Bluish-Red)

  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Altered State Of Consciousness If It Affects The Brain
Types Of Blood Cancer

The Various Kinds Of Blood Cancers

Blood Cancer Has An Impact On Both The Number Of Blood Cells Produced And How Well They Function. Most Cancers Begin In The Marrow, Which Is Where Blood Is Made. Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, And Platelets Are All Blood Cell Types That Mature And Develop From Bone Marrow Stem Cells.

Most Blood Cancers Are Characterised By The Uncontrolled Growth Of Abnormal Blood Cells That Disrupts The Development Of Normal Blood Cells. These Abnormal Cancerous Blood Cells (Or) Cells Limit Blood Functions Like The Ability To Fight Off Infections And Prevent Life-Threatening Bleeding.

Three Types Of Blood Cancers Are Known To Exist.

  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Myeloma

A Type Of White Blood Cell Known As A Lymphocyte Fights Infections. Abnormal Lymphocytes Develop Into Lymphoma Cells, Which Multiply And Gather In The Lymph Nodes As Well As In Other Tissues. These Cancerous Cells Weaken The Immune System Over Time.


Cancerous Leukaemia Is A Form Of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (All) That Affects The Blood And Bone Marrow. Acute And Chronic Leukaemia Are Both Possible Forms Of The Disease. Chronic Leukaemia Progresses More Slowly Than Acute Leukaemia, But It Still Necessitates Immediate Treatment.

Treatments For Acute Leukaemia Have Had Good Results For Many Patients. Cells With Chronic Leukaemia Divide More Slowly As A Result Of More Effective Treatment With Targeted Agents. Some Patients Can Gain Access To Experimental Therapies By Taking Part In Clinical Trials, So It’s Important To Discuss Clinical Trials With Your Doctor And Determine Whether Or Not They Are Right For You.

Lymphocytic Leukaemia Is Distinguished From Myelogenous Leukaemia By The Presence Of Lymphocytes. Immune System-Related Lymphocytic Leukaemia Is Characterised By The Development Of Lymphocytes In The Bone Marrow Into A Type Of White Blood Cell Called A Lymphocyte. Myelogenous Leukaemia Is The Medical Term For Abnormal Marrow Cell Growth That Eventually Matures Into White Blood Cells.

Leukemia Can Be Classified Into Four Categories:

  • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Adults And Children Alike Can Be Diagnosed With Leukaemia. Some Common Leukaemia Symptoms Include Headaches, An Enlarged Liver And Spleen, A High Fever, A Mould Infection, Flu-Like Symptoms Such As Chills And Fever, Bone Pain, A Loss Of Appetite And Paleness. Pinhead-Carving, Swollen Or Bleeding Tonsils, Gums, Weakness, And Exhaustion On The Skin Are All Symptoms.


Lymphoma Is A Cancer That Affects The Lymphatic System, Causing The Body To Lose Too Much Fluid And To Overproduce Immune Cells. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma And Non-Lymphoma Hodgkin’s Are The Two Types Of Lymphomas. An Estimated 1 In Every 12 People With Lymphoma Has Hodgkin Lymphoma. It Was Once Thought To Be Fatal, But Rupture Research Has Transformed It Into A Treatable Condition.

90% Of Non-Lymphomas Hodgkin’s Are B Cells, Which Can Grow Rapidly Or Slowly Depending On The Grade (Low-Grade). Non-Hodgkin B-Cell Lymphomas Come In 14 Different Varieties. Most T-Cell Lymphomas Are Named After A Specific Type Of Cancerous White Blood Cell, Called A Lymphocyte (Lymphocytes Are White Blood Cells).

In Addition To The Above Symptoms, Lymphoma Can Also Cause Fatigue, Weakness, And Swollen Lymph Nodes In The Neck, Armpits, Or Groyne.


Myeloma Is A Cancer Of The Plasma Cells. Antibodies That Fight Disease And Infection Are Made In The Body By Plasma Cells, Which Are White Blood Cells. The Proliferation Of Myeloma Cells Interferes With The Body’s Normal Production And Function Of Red And White Blood Cells. Abnormally High Levels Of These Dysfunctional Antibodies In The Bloodstream Can Damage The Kidneys.

It’s Well-Known That Myeloma Cells Produce A Substance Capable Of Destroying Bone, Leading To Fracture Or Discomfort. Myeloma Cells Are Created In The Marrow, Which Is Soft Tissue Inside The Bones. As They Circulate Through The Body, Cancer Cells Called Myeloma Gather In Other Bones. Multiple Myeloma Is The Medical Term For It Because It Can Appear In Multiple Places Along The Spinal Cord At The Same Time.

There Are Several Symptoms And Signs Of Myeloma, Including Anaemia (A Low Red Blood Cell Count), Kidney Damage (Kidney Failure), Hypercalcemia Of Weight Loss (A High Level Of Calcium In The Blood), Infection Susceptibility, Osteoporosis (Thinning Of The Bones), Bone Pain, Swelling, Or Fracture, And Elevated Protein Levels In The Blood Or Urine. Men Who Are Exposed To Radiation, Work In The Petroleum Industry, Are Over 50, And Are Obese Are More Likely To Develop Myeloma.

Hemotologic Oncology

Hematology-Oncology And Blood Cancers

When It Comes To Understanding Health And Disease, Haematology Studies Blood In Relation To Those Things.

Blood Serves A Variety Of Functions In The Body, Including The Following:

It Moves Critical Elements Around The Body, Like Oxygen And Nutrients. This Helps Maintain The Body’s Ph Balance, Which Is Essential For Staying Healthy.

The Lymphatic System, A Network Of Tissues And Organs That Removes Waste, Can Be Affected By Problems With The Blood.

Bone Marrow Disorders, Which Affect The Majority Of The Body’s Blood Cells, Can Cause Blood Disorders.

It Is The Goal Of Haematology To Figure Out Why And How These Health Issues Occur, As Well As How To Treat Them.

White Blood Cells, Red Blood Cells, Platelets, And Plasma Are All Components Of Blood That Help Oxygenate Organs And Tissues, Fight Infections, And Help Form Clots When Bleeding Stops. A Blood Test Can Reveal Whether Or Not A Person Has Cancer Based On These Markers. Hematology-Oncology Can Help With That. A Breakdown Of Oncologic Medicine In This Area Is Provided Below.


Despite The Fact That No Two Cases Of Blood Cancer Are The Same, There Are Some Telltale Warning Signs That It May Be Time To Consult With An Oncologist In The Field Of Haematology. Blood Cancer Symptoms Include:

  • Chest Pain, Fever, Chills, Coughing
  • Infectious Diseases Are Prevalent In Large Numbers.
  • Rashes And Itchy Skin Are Two Different Things.
  • Constant Tiredness Or Weakness
  • Having A Hard Time Breathing
  • Lymph Nodes In The Groyne, Armpits, Or Neck That Are Swollen But Not Painful
  • Appetite Swings Or Recurrent Sickness

The Root Cause Of Your Symptoms And Whether Or Not They Are Linked To Cancer Will Be Determined By A Variety Of Tests, Such As Blood Screens, Bone Marrow Exams And Diagnostic Imaging Tests, Which A Hematologist-Oncologist Will Perform If You Are Experiencing Any Of These Symptoms

Treating Cancers Of The Blood

Treatment For Blood Cancer Must Be Individually Tailored For Each Patient, Just Like Treatment For Other Types Of Cancer. The Patient’s Overall Health, Type Of Blood Cancer, And Stage Will All Influence The Treatment Plan. Chemotherapy And Radiation Therapy, As Well As Stem Cell Transplants, Are All Common Methods Of Treating Blood Cancers.

Treatment And Management Of Blood Cancers Require A Multidisciplinary Team Of Specialists From Several Fields Of Medicine, Not Just Hematology-Oncology, At A Hematology-Oncology Clinic. Cancer Care Associates’ Specialists Include Surgeons, Radiation Oncologists, Radiologists, And Pathologists. Psychologists Who Keep Tabs On Your Mental Well-Being During Treatment And Recovery May Also Be Involved In Your Care, As Well As Doctors Who Specialise In Infectious Disease And Pain Medicine.

Hematologists Also Perform Other Procedures.

Many Therapies, Treatments, And Procedures Involving Blood And Bone Marrow Involve Haematologists. Hematologists Carry Out The Following Duties:

Surgery To Remove Tumours By Ablating Them (Procedures In Which Abnormal Tissue Can Be Eliminated Using Heat, Cold, Lasers, Or Chemicals)

  • Transfusions Of Blood Are Necessary.
  • Stem Cell And Bone Marrow Transplants Are Both Options.
  • Treatments For Cancer, Such As Chemo And Biologics
  • Treatments Utilising Growth Hormones
  • Immunotherapy

Hematologists Frequently Work With Other Medical Specialists, Such As Internists, Pathologists, Radiologists, And Oncologists, Because Blood Disorders Can Affect Almost Any Part Of The Body.

Hematologists Care For Patients Of All Ages, Including Infants, Children, And Adolescents. Clinicians, Nurses, And Laboratory Technicians All Work In Healthcare Facilities.


Cell Therapy And Hematologic Oncology

Cancers Of The Bone Marrow, Blood, And Lymphatic System Such As Leukemias, Myeloproliferative Syndromes, Lymphoproliferative Syndromes, And Myelomas Are Studied, Diagnosed, And Treated In Onco-Hematology.

Hematologists Are Doctors Who Study Blood Cells And The Processes That Lead To The Formation Of Those Cells. They Focus On The Pathogenesis Of These Cancer-Causing Cells, Sometimes Over The Course Of A Long Period Of Time, In Order To Come Up With A Treatment Option That Is Effective. For The Former Poitou-Charentes Region, The Haematology And Cell Therapy Service Is Organised Around National And International Experts In Each Of The Fields And Pathologies That Are Addressed By This Specialty And Provides A Resource For Each Of These Diseases. Each And Every One Of The Former Poitou-Charentes Region’s Patients Who Is Treated For A Pathology Is Subject To An Opinion Or Even Treatment By The Haematology And Cell Therapy Service Of Poitiers University Hospital.

There Are Three Types Of Research That Go Into Providing Patient Care: Fundamental, Translational, And Clinical. Patients Are Treated In Therapeutic Trials For A Large Number Of Diseases, Which Gives Them Early Access To New Drugs And New Ideas In Haematology.

Hematological Diseases Can Be Treated In A Variety Of Ways, Some Of Which Can Be Used Alone Or In Combination:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Targeted Therapies
  • Immunotherapy



Cancer Cells Can Be Destroyed Or Prevented From Multiplying Through Chemotherapy, Which Administers Drugs To The Patient In An Effort To Combat Cancer.


Chemotherapy Drugs Come In A Wide Variety And Are Frequently Used In Combination To Maximise Their Effectiveness. They Can Be Administered Intravenously, Intramuscularly, Or Orally As Tablets.

However, Chemotherapy Drugs Can Also Cause Harm To Healthy, Rapidly Dividing Cells. These Effects Can Include Nausea, Vomiting, Hair Loss, And Fatigue In Addition To Cancer Cell Destruction. Depending On The Medication And The Patient’s Tolerance, These Side Effects Can Last Anywhere From A Few Minutes To Several Days.



Radiation Therapy Is A Cancer Treatment That Focuses On A Specific Area Of The Body. Cancer Cells Are Destroyed By Blocking Their Ability To Multiply Using Radiation (Also Known As Rays Or Radiation).


In An Allograft Setting, Total Body Irradiation (Tbi) Radiation Therapy Destroys The Patient’s Bone Marrow And Immune System To Aid Engraftment. It Is Always Used In Conjunction With Chemotherapy To Maximise The Effectiveness Of Both Treatments.

Targeted Therapies

By Interfering With Cancer Cells’ Molecular Alterations Or The Mechanisms That Lead To Their Development And Spread, Targeted Therapies Aim To Slow Or Stop Their Growth Or Spread.



Cancer Immunotherapy: A Promising New Treatment Option

To Aid The Immune System In The Fight Against Cancer, Immunotherapy Is A Treatment Option. To Keep You Healthy And Fight Off Infections And Disease, Your Immune System Works Hard. The Lymphatic System Is Made Up Of White Blood Cells, Organs, And Tissues.

Biological Therapy Includes Immunotherapy. Biotherapy Is A Treatment Method That Targets Cancer By Using Substances Produced By Living Organisms.


Immunotherapy Comes In A Variety Of Forms:

Antibodies Made From A Specific Type Of Antibody Called A Monoclon

Certain Specific Mechanisms In Cancer Cells Can Be Identified And Blocked, Or The Cancer Cell Itself Can Be Identified And Destroyed.


Cancer Cells Have Been Known To Put The Immune System To Sleep By Putting Pressure On The System’s Built-In Brakes To Slow Them Down. They Are Also Capable Of Rerouting The Body’s Defences So That Tumour Growth Is Favoured. By Removing These Inhibitory And Diverting Mechanisms, Immunomodulators Seek To Restore The Immune System’s Functionality. Certain Cancers And Haematology In Hodgkin Lymphoma Have Already Seen The Use Of Anti-Pd-1, Anti-Pd-L1, And Anti-Ctla-4 Molecules With Different Mechanisms Of Action.

Cell Therapy Is An Option.

When It Comes To Biotherapy, Living Organisms (Such As Yeasts, Ferments, And Certain Microbes) Or Substances Derived From Living Organisms Are Used As Therapeutic Agents (Hormones, Organ Or Tissue Extracts). In Contrast To Chemotherapy, Which Makes Use Of Man-Made Chemicals. “Biotherapies” Include Cell Therapy, Which Uses Cells Derived From Embryonic Stem Cells (Also Known As Undifferentiated Cells) To Treat An Organ Or An Organism By Substituting Or Replacing Defective Cells.


Hematopoietic Stem Cells Are Removed From The Patient’s Blood And Stored (By Freezing) As An Autograft. After An Intensive Chemotherapy Treatment To Shorten The Duration Of Aplasia, These Cells Are Reinjected.

When Immunochemotherapy Treatments Fail To Cure A Patient, Doctors May Consider An Allogeneic Transplant. In This Procedure, Hematopoietic Stem Cells From An Hla-Compatible Donor Are Administered After Chemotherapy And Radiotherapy Have Destroyed The Patient’s Bone Marrow And Immune System To Create New Bone Marrow And Immune Cells. Donors May Come From A Donor Registry Or A Family Tree (Anonymous Donation). Immune Cells (T Lymphocytes) That Have Been Manipulated In The Laboratory To Be Active Against Cancer Cells Are Injected Into The Patient As Car-T Cells. Personalized Medical Techniques Are Needed For The Car-T Cell Transplant, Which Is Currently Undergoing Clinical Trials At The Hospital.